Open Access Short Research Article

Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Neonatal Convulsion at Tobruck Medical Center - Libya

Mohanad Abdulhadi Saleh Lawgali, Faiaz Ragab Salem Halies, Amina M. Beayou, Nasren Gamal Saleh Al-Fraik, Khadeejah Miftah Ali Al-Khurum

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology, Page 38-46

Neonatal seizures are the most prominent feature of neurological dysfunction during neonatal period. Seizures in the neonatal population often present differently than in other age groups due to brain immaturity. However, in neonates there may be no clinical movement abnormality either because the seizures are subclinical or because they cannot be noticed. This study aimed to determine the natural history, the time of onset, the etiological factors, the clinical types, the treatment, and the short-term outcomes of neonatal convulsion. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Tobruck Medical Centre from the 1st of January 2017 to the end of January 2018. During this, 642 neonates were admitted to NICU, out of which 27 had seizures. 17 (62.7%) of the babies were males and 10 (37%) were females. All of them were Libyans; 70.3% were from Tobruck city.

Open Access Short Communication

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Study of 12 Cases from Southern Brazil

Otto Jesus Hernandez Fustes, Carlos Arteaga Rodriguez, Georgette Mouchaileh E. Ferreira

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology, Page 11-15

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a pathology that affects the cerebral venous sinuses causing an ischemic and/or hemorrhagic brain, but, contrary to the arterial cerebral vascular accident, has a clinical presentation with varied signs and symptoms that are difficult to diagnose in the its initial phase. Objective: To present the clinical findings of twelve cases of CVT. Materials and methods: We reviewed the charts of patients admitted with a diagnosis of CVT. Results: We describe 8 females and 4 males, with mean age of 30 years. The most common signs and symptoms were: headache (89%), seizure (55.5%), cranial nerve palsy (44%) and hemiparesis (33%). All patients had diagnoses confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance of the skull. The risk factors found were the use of oral and puerperium contraceptives. All patients were treated with oral anticoagulant, with no death reported in this series. Conclusion: Venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon disease that requires a high index of suspected diagnosis by the medical team. The mortality rate is low and the treatment is usually effective.

Open Access Minireview Article

Novel Insights into Neuroprotective Strategies Employing NQO1 and DCLK1 in Parkinson’s Disease

Kandage, M. Shyami, Silva, N. Gayathri, Gamage, K. Kanchana

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology, Page 16-27

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder and is only second to Alzheimer’s disease in most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. Diverse causative factors lead to PD pathology among which oxidative stress and accumulation of α-Synuclein aggregates are considered to be key determinants for both sporadic and familial forms. In this review we focus on two novel research efforts to block elevated oxidative stress and α-Syn aggregates to provide neuroprotection to the dopaminergic neurons and thereby alleviating the motor symptoms displayed in PD animal models. A recently published effort from Luo and colleagues, discovered a pathway where the neuroprotective protein NQO1 is degraded upon phosphorylation by activated Akt and making the dopaminergic neurons susceptible to demise via elevated oxidative stress. Another recent report by Vázquez-Vélez and colleagues explored the regulatory relationship between the neuron expressed kinase DCLK1 and α-Syn in the context of human cellular and mouse models. These discoveries concentrate on different mechanisms of preventing the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD by reducing the oxidative stress and α-Syn aggregation via regulating key determinants of PD pathophysiology, NQO1 and DCLK1 respectively. This review emphasizes the possibility of employing both NQO1 and DCLK1 as promising therapeutic targets leading to future prospects of combinational therapies for devastating diseases like PD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness of Tourette’s Syndrome among the General Population in Saudi Arabia

Amany Mohammed Khalifa, Razan Sulaiman Alsuhaymi, Ruba Abdrabuh Alhamdi, Reem sultan albalawi, Sitah Saleh Alenezi

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology, Page 28-37

Background:  Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is one of the most complicated disorders in case history and its discovery. It is a childhood-onset regulated neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple motor tics plus one or more phonic vocalizations tics. The management of TS requires appropriate education and support.

The Aim: The present study built the interest to assess the knowledge and awareness of definition, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, complication, and treatment of Tourette’s syndrome (TS) in different regions in Saudi society and try to improve the false thoughts about this disease.

Material: A cross-sectional survey was distributed throughout the regions in Saudi Arabia, by the help of 27 data collectors, between October 2020 to January 2021. An online questionnaire was designed. It included informed consent and 11 questions about the sociodemographic data and questions regarding signs, symptoms, complications, and management about TS. It was distributed via various social media apps.

Methods: SPSS for Windows v22.0 IBM Inc..SPSS for windows Rel 15.0 2006 Chicago Inc.

Results: A total of 5526 adult participated in the present study. 70.7% where females and 29.3% males. More than half of them 75.3% in age group 20-29 in about 81.6% have university degree or above. 63.5% of the respondents heard about TS and 58% correctly defend the syndrome as disorder involve uncontrolled repetitive movement or unwanted sounds.

Conclusion: The present study found that majority of the respondents were aware of Tourette’s Syndrome in KSA, but they had poor knowledge about the Tourette’s Syndrome.

Open Access Review Article

The Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Review

Sujan Narayan Agrawal

Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology, Page 1-10

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an insult to the brain from an external mechanical force. It may cause permanent or temporary impairment of cognitive, physical, and/or psychological functions. It may also be associated with an altered or diminished state of consciousness. It accounts for approximately 40% of all deaths from acute injuries. The economic burden due to loss of earning capacity is tremendous. It affects all age groups, but the main victims are the adults in the prime of their life. The major cause of TBI is road traffic accidents. The primary injury, sustained at the time of the accident, cannot be altered. The main aim of TBI management is to prevent or limit the secondary brain injury which develops after Primary injury. The proper recognition of trauma and secondary pathology goes a long way to limit mortality and morbidity. The skull fractures, intracranial bleeds can be surgically treated. Early recognition of cerebral edema, raised intracranial tension, hydrocephalus and brain herniation is the essential part of neurosurgical management.