Pseudotumoral acute hemi-cerebellitis is an inflammatory condition, a self-limited disease with good prognosis, which does not need treatment in most of the cases. It is very rare worldwide, and few cases have described it before. It has a unique presentation and a characteristic neuroimage finding. The cause is not known however, it can be the primary infection, post-infectious or post vaccination disorder. The present work described that, a child was diagnosed to have pseudo- tumoral acute hemi-cerebellitis with a typical presentation in the form of unilateral weakness and areflexia, which was never been reported before this study.
The presented clinical case describes a rare occurrence of progressive palsy with a tiger-eye effect on MRI. The issues of the workup and differential diagnosis were discussed. There was an argument that along with other MRI criteria for the diagnosis of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), the above-described symptom of the "tiger eye" may occur in some patients with this disease. This radiological sign serves as a pathological correlative, indicating the possibility of developing neurodegenerative disease according to a single universal mechanism of neuronal death in various parts of the brain that determine the specificity of clinical manifestations.
Aims: This study is part of a series aiming to evaluate the computational complexity used by the human brain while perceptually judging a logic proposition.
Methods: In the present article we report a psychophysical study in which the hypothesis that efficiency and efficacy of these perceptual decisions depend on the proposition but not on the validating sensory stimuli was tested. Subjects had to judge whether a color stimulus verifies a proposition under a go/no-go protocol. Different protocols were used for the evaluation of the relative weight of proposition connectors on the latency, accuracy and precision of the responses.
Results and Discussion: Errors and latencies increase with the minimum description length of the proposition, but the relative weight of absences was double than the weight of presences (even when brief and single color stimuli ruled out visual search). However, values predicted by this rule are smaller than those found for conditionals and larger than those found for biconditionals and exclusive disjunctions. We postulate that the brain uses a “one and only one is valid” operator (which is equivalent to exclusive disjunction in dyadic statements) to deal with these propositions.
Conclusions: Decision difficulty (including within this term time and accuracy) depends on proposition structure. We provide a heuristic rule that predicts evaluation time better than previously proposed hypotheses.
Background: The association between serum Prolactin (PRL) levels and disease activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) remains debated. Studies regarding the role of PRL in the immunology of MS (regardless of gender) have had conflicting results.
Objective: This study aimed to compare the serum levels of PRL between the remission and relapse phases of MS and also between MS patients and healthy individuals.
Methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MS, 30 of which were in remission while the other 30 were in relapse, in addition to 30 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls. Those with underlying conditions affecting serum PRL levels were excluded from the study. Serum PRL levels were measured in fasting blood samples. Duration of disease and the existence of enhancing/non-enhancing gadolinium plaques in brain MRIs were also recorded.
Results: Serum PRL levels did not significantly differ in the MS group based on disease phase (relapse or remission phases), gender, the existence of enhancing/non-enhancing plaques, disease duration and also between MS patients in relapse and remission phases with the control group (both men and women).
Conclusions: There were no significant differences in serum PRL levels between the case and control groups (both genders). Also, no significant relationship between serum PRL levels and disease duration or the existence of active MRI lesions.
There are a vast number of different types of brief neurological screening tests. Many clinicians are not aware of the vast number of scales and tests and some clinicians have specific realms that they want to investigate. This paper will cursorily review a number of these papers and provide a brief overview of each.