Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology</strong>&nbsp;aims&nbsp;to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJORRIN/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Neurology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology) (Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology) Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Fatal Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage in a Low Risk Parturient: A Case Report with Review of Literature <p>Intracerebral hemorrhage is uncommon during pregnancy when compared to puerperium and associated with devastating outcomes. This is a case of fatal intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 25 years woman who had supervised antenatal care in her second pregnancy. She had one transient diastolic blood pressure (BP) recording of 92mmHg at 35 weeks of gestation and home BP charting and subsequent recordings were normal. She presented at 39 weeks to emergency room in labour with signs of concealed abruption. There was history of transient headache on the day of admission but no other imminent symptoms. She had a seizure-like activity soon after arrival followed by which she lost her consciousness, and Dhaka’s regimen [Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)] was started. She progressed spontaneously and delivered a 2800 grams fresh stillborn. Investigations suggested features of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury. Atonic postpartum hemorrhage was managed aggressively with oxytocics and blood products. There were two consecutive episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) despite MgSo4. Neuroimaging revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with multiple petechial bleeds in bilateral hemispheres. Despite worsening neurological symptoms with increased intracranial pressure, timely neurosurgical intervention was not possible due to associated coagulopathy. Subsequently, she became comatose and condition worsened on postnatal day 6. A retrospective history revealed antepartum eclampsia in her sister. Routine screening for preeclampsia in some form using either phenotypic or biomarkers will be lifesaving and unusual headaches in a pregnant woman warrant through evaluation as time is golden in cerebrovascular accidents.</p> Vignesh Durai, Babhani Pegu, Yavana Suriya, R. Sasirekha, W. Vaibhav, Veena Ranjan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Myasthenia Gravis in Pregnancy: Case Series and Review of Literature <p>Myasthenia gravis is a rare autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction and is more common in the women during their second or third decade of life. The course of the disease in pregnancy is unpredictable and may aggravate warranting optimal preconceptional counselling, strict adherence to medication, recognition of complications, avoidance of precipitating factors, intensive antepartum and intrapartum care by multi- disciplinary team for successful outcomes and prevention of life-threatening complications. The pregnancy outcomes in patients with myasthenia gravis is discussed in this case series.</p> Yavana Suriya Venkatesh, Murali Subbaiah, Latha Chaturvedula, Jayalakshmi Durairaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Factors, Clinical Presentations and Predictors Analysis of Stroke in Adult Patients in India: A Prospective Observational Study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stroke is the second most common cause of death and permanent disability across the world. Presently, its burden is in a growing phase, especially in high, low and medium-income countries. In India, it is considered as the common cause of admission to health care centers. However, there is a lack of information at the epidemiological (Risk factors, clinical presentations &amp; predictors) level which might be due to the different diagnostic standards, case definitions, survey strategies, poor public awareness and inadequate medical facilities. Therefore, the present study is focused on the assessment of risk factors, clinical presentations and predictors of stroke among adult patients admitted to the stroke unit of SSB heart &amp; multispeciality hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Prospective observational study was conducted for 3 consecutive months from April to June 2021. A total of 25 patients (&gt;18 years of age) diagnosed with ischemic stroke and admitted to the Stroke Unit were enrolled on the basis of their CT head findings while hemorrhagic stroke patients were excluded. Data collection was done by the trained medicinal practitioners and evaluated on the basis of age, gender, risk factors and clinical presentation.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The maximum patient i.e. 18 were recorded between 60- 80 years of age, males (64%) were found to be more susceptible as compared to females (36%). Further, low level of high-density lipoprotein was recorded as the most common risk factor followed by hypertension and smoking. Hemiparesis was observed as the common clinical presentation in 19 patients followed by dysarthria and ataxia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concluded that both modifiable and nonmodifiable factors play a crucial role in stroke conditions and further, more research is needed with the incorporation of more modifiable and nonmodifiable factors in new studies in the future for the better management and treatment of stroke patients.</p> Divya Goel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Marijuana and Its Effects in Brain <p><em>Cannabis sativa</em> (hemp) plant is the source of cannabis-based products which comes from any part of the plant such as seeds, stems and flowering tops. The products of this plant are used for recreational purpose. It can also be used to sooth the pain and other medical conditions. Not all products of this plant is mind altering but some of them posses the psychotic effect. The active ingredient of the plant is called as cannabinoids. Almost 120 active chemicals are present in cannabis. According to the scientific reports these cannabis can be used to chronic pain in adults, nausea and vomiting resulting from chemotherapy treatment, some symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS).These cannabis can be ingested in various forms such as smoking, taking it as supplements, topical treatment, eating either raw or with candies, can be added in tea as a brew. This chapter will address the effect of these cannabis in human brain and its mechanisms of action.</p> Jayalakshmi Krishnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive-Enhancing and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Garlic and Ginger Mixture in Wistar Rats <p>Mental acuity and cognition are intelligent Index that could be threatened by oxidative stress in organisms and the widespread use of ginger and garlic in food is acclaimed to be good anti-oxidant in stressful conditions. The study was designed to examine the relationship between oxidative stress/inflammatory variables and cognition as well as studying comparisons of oxidative stress status and cognition between test groups and controls. A measured quantity (5kg each) of fresh garlic and ginger were purchased, washed, peeled and blended very finely and the pastes were squished to extract the juices (mixture). 20 male rats were randomized into five sets and treated as follows: group 1(control), group 2(low dose mixture), group 3(high dose mixture), group 4(donepezil), group 5(low dose mixture and donepezil), group 6(high dose mixture and donepezil). After two weeks of treatment, the animals were made to undergo Elevated Plus Maze task and Morris Water Maze task while at the end of four weeks, they were sacrificed and 5ml of blood was collected from the rats for oxidative stress maker evaluation. It was observed that the mixture of garlic and ginger in the administered groups improved significantly the performance potential and cognition in both tasks, although the drug donepezil exhibited more activities but the performance was more attenuated when combined with the mixture. The pattern of oxidative stress status decreased significantly with the administration of the mixture indicating strongly, a potent anti-oxidant potential in stress-laden scenarios, the obtained results suggest that the blend of garlic and ginger (GARLGING) (100 and 300&nbsp;mg/kg) exerts compelling anti-amnesic and intellectual enhancing properties through inflection of the antioxidant action in the hippocampus of the rat model.</p> Spiff O. Comfort, Olorunfemi O. Joyce, Musa I. Stephen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Neurobehavioral Effects of Anterior, Superior and Lateral Head Injury on Adult Male Wistar Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Head injury is a common occurrence among sports men and women, the military and paramilitary as well as in road accidents. Victims of head trauma in Nigeria usually do not receive proper medical attention. This is because once the patient recovers and is able to move, healing is assumed. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of traumatic head injuries on adult male Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result of the hanging wire test for motor function showed that animals in the control group could hang on their limbs for longer duration throughout the three tests. Animals in group B had a slight decrease in duration as the tests progressed. However, animals in groups C and D had a significant decrease in duration as the tests progressed. The result of the Morris water maze test for spatial learning showed that it took the rats in the control group less time to locate the escape platform compared to rats in the experimental groups. The Open field test for model of anxiety-like behaviour evaluated the animals’ response level to centre freezing, line crossing, rearing, grooming, urination, faeces and freezing. The result of the open field tests showed that animals in the control group responded better to the tests than animals in the experimental groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Head injury resulted in weakness, poor memory performance, high level of fear and anxiety and higher tendency to be static (freezing). These tendencies became worse days after the injury. The study also noted that lateral head injury produced worse effects compared to superior and anterior head injuries.</p> Ugochukwu Samuel Aguwa, Darlington Nnamdi Onyejike ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on the Use of Root Extracts of Triclisia subcordata and Hippocratea africana on the Neurohistology of the Cerebellum of Adult Wistar Rats <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study was conducted to investigate the effects of <em>Triclisia subcordata</em> and <em>Hippocratea africana</em> on the histological features of the cerebellum of adult Wistar rat.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Twenty adults male Wistar rat with an average weight of 200 g were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as the control and received 5 ml kg<sup>-1 </sup>of water. Group 2 animals received 150 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight of ethanolic root extract of <em>T. subcordata</em>, group 3 animals received 200 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight of ethanolic root extract of <em>H. africana</em>, while group 4 animals received combined ethanolic root extracts of 150/200 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> body weight of <em>T. subcordata</em> and <em>H. africana </em>orally for 7 days. The weight of the animals were confirmed prior, during and after the administration of the extracts. The brains were processed for routine histological study using haematoxylin and eosin. Representative sections were used for silver impregnation method for neuronal morphology.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was a high significant difference (<em>P</em> = .05) in the final body weights of the control group 1 and that of the test group 2 animals given 150 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> <em>T. subcordata </em>when compared to their initial weights. The body weight of group 4 animals given combined 150/200 mg kg<sup>-1 </sup><em>T subcordata</em> and<em> H. africana </em>was however significantly (<em>P</em> = .05) lower than the control after administration of the extract. There was no significant difference in body weight in group 3 which received 200 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> of <em>H. africana </em>throughout the duration of the administration. The cerebellum of all the test groups showed histopathological features including cell atrophy, pyknosis, vacuolation of oligodendrocyte with loss of Purkinje cell neurons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, this result shows that the extract may individually and in combination cause neurodegenerative alterations in the cerebellar cytoarchitecture hence must be taken in moderation.</p> Ubong P. Jonah, Nsikan-Abasi B. Udoh, Lydia E. Udofia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Fleurya aestuans Extract against Brewer’s Yeast and Egg Albumin Induced Pyrexia and Inflammation <p>The goal of this study is to see if hydroethanolic extract of <em>Fleurya aestuans</em> can reduce pyrexia and inflammation in Wistar rats. 50 study animals were divided into two groups: Pyrexia group (1, 2, 3, 4) and Inflammatory group (A, B, C, D and E). Fever was produced in the research animals by injecting 20 ml/kg of a 20% brewer's yeast suspension in normal saline under the skin. All rats had their rectal temperatures measured at hourly intervals for four days in a row. Acute inflammation was produced in the anti-inflammatory trial groups by injecting 0.1 ml of egg albumin sub-plantarly into the left hind paw. At 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after induction of inflammation, the circumference of the paw was measured with a Vernier caliper. In comparison to the control group (CG) and positive control group (PCG), low dose extract group (LDEG), medium dose extract group (MDEG), and high dose extract group (HDEG) showed significant reductions (p&lt;0.05) in rectal temperatures and hind paw circumference. Finally, the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of <em>Fleurya aestuans</em> was concluded to possess antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties.</p> Charles C. Nwafor, Kiridi E. Gabriel, Solomon M. Uvoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000