Effect of Cannabis Inhalation on the Hippocampus of Male Wistar Rats

Emejuru-Okpe, Emeka Sylvester

Department of Anatomy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

Aguwa, Ugochukwu Samuel *

Department of Anatomy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

Kalu, Emeka Emmanuel

Department of Anatomy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria.

Nwankwo, Matthew Ogbonnaya

College of Nursing Sciences, Amich, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Cannabis is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco, with an estimated 160 million users (3.8% of the world’s population of 15-64 year olds). There are other smokeless forms of cannabis consumption like being added to food. This study is focused on the effect of cannabis inhalation on the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Twenty (20) male Wistar rats weighing 70-100g were separated into 4 groups of 5 rats each; Group A served as positive control and received water and rat chow. Group B rats were placed in the ventilation box without exposure to the cannabis smoke for 10 minutes daily throughout the duration of this study. Group C were exposed to 1g of Cannabis smoke for 10-minutes daily for 14 days while Group D were exposed to 2g of Cannabis smoke for 15-minutes. 24 hours after the last exposure, rats were weighed and subjected to Morris water maze neurobehavioural test for memory. The rats were then sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the brain was harvested. Some were homogenized and centrifuged for biochemical assay while the others were fixed in 10% formal saline for histological tissue processing using the H & E. The findings of this study reveal that cannabis smoke does not affect Wistar rats' body weight and brain weight on short-term exposure. However, it shows mild focal inflammations and alterations in the normal neuronal architecture of the hippocampal cells. On the other hand, the study revealed a decreased learning pattern and memory retrieval time following short-term cannabis smoke exposure in neurobehavioural parameters.

Keywords: Cannabis, hippocampus, memory, Morris water maze


How to Cite

Sylvester, E.-O. E., Samuel, A. U., Emmanuel, K. E., & Ogbonnaya, N. M. (2022). Effect of Cannabis Inhalation on the Hippocampus of Male Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Neurology, 5(1), 151–158. Retrieved from https://journalajorrin.com/index.php/AJORRIN/article/view/69

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Nsikak Ephraim U, Godwin UU. Antifertility effect of inhaled cannabis sativa on male wistar rats. American Journal of Health Research. 2019;7(1):1.

DOI: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20190701.11

Rajput R, Kumar K. A review on Cannabis sativa: Its compounds and their effects. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2018;53(2)59–63.

Available:https://www.embase.com/search/results?subaction=viewrecord&id=L2001352459&from=export.

Khairi NA, Gobouri AA, Dhahawi HO. A review on omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids: Uses, benefits and their availability in pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima) seed and desert dates (Balanites aegyptiaca) seed kernel oils. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2014;17(12):1195-208.

Audu BS, Ofojekwu PC, Ujah A, Ajima MN. Phytochemical, proximate composition, amino acid profile and characterization of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.). The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2014;3(1):35-43.

Oladimeji AV, Valan M. Phytochemical profile of cannabis plant: A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. AkiNik Publications. 2020;9(3):680–687.

DOI: 10.22271/PHYTO.2020.V9.I3K.11350

Choudhary N. et al. Phytochemical aspect of Cannabis sativa (L.). Research Journal of Science and Technology. 2013;5(2):284–288.

Pertwee RG, et al. International union of basic and clinical pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: Beyond CB1 and CB2. Pharmacological Reviews. Pharmacol Rev. 2010;588–631.

DOI: 10.1124/pr.110.003004

Zou S, Kumar U. Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoid system: Signaling and function in the central nervous system. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. MDPI AG; 2018.

DOI: 10.3390/ijms19030833

Chen DJ, et al. Brain cannabinoid receptor 2: Expression, function and modulation. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. Nature Publishing Group. 2017;38(3):312–316.

DOI: 10.1038/aps.2016.149

Rodrigues RS, et al. Cannabinoid actions on neural stem cells: Implications for pathophysiology. Molecules. MDPI AG. 2019;1350.

DOI: 10.3390/molecules24071350

Cohen K, Weinstein A. The effects of cannabinoids on executive functions: Evidence from cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids—a systematic review. Brain Sciences. MDPI AG; 2018.

DOI: 10.3390/brainsci8030040

Broyd SJ, et al. Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on human cognition - A systematic review. Biological Psychiatry. Elsevier Inc. 2016;557–567.

DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.12.002

Cohen K, et al. The effects of synthetic cannabinoids on executive function. Psychopharmacology. Springer Verlag. 2017;234(7):1121–1134.

DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4546-4

Yücel M, et al. Hippocampal harms, protection and recovery following regular cannabis use. Translational psychiatry. Nature Publishing Group. 2016;6(1):e710.

DOI: 10.1038/tp.2015.201

Beale C, et al. Prolonged cannabidiol treatment effects on hippocampal subfield volumes in current cannabis users. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. Mary Ann Liebert Inc. 2018; 3(1):94–107.

DOI: 10.1089/can.2017.0047

Owolabi J, et al. Histomorphological aberrations associated with cannabis and caffeine exposure in the hippocampus of juvenile wistar rats. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal. Sciencedomain International. 2017;9(4):1–10.

DOI: 10.9734/indj/2017/34165

Obonga WO, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity and accelerated stability studies of crude extract syrup of cannabis sativa. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2019;18(2):295–301.

DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v18i2.11

Akinola O, et al. Effects of whole Cannabis sativa ingestion on behavioural patterns and oxidative stress in mice brain tissues. Animal Research International. 2019;16(1): 3273–3284.

DOI: 10.4314/ari.v16i1

Kim D, et al. Aberrant structural-functional coupling in adult cannabis users. Human brain mapping. Hum Brain Mapp. 2019; 40(1):252–261.

DOI: 10.1002/HBM.24369

Barnhart CD, Yang D, Lein PJ. Using the morris water maze to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice. PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science. 2015;10(4):e0124521.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124521

Huang DYC, Lanza HI, Anglin MD. Association between adolescent substance use and obesity in young adulthood: A group-based dual trajectory analysis. Addict Behav. 2013;38:2653–2660.

Jin LZ, Rangan A, Mehlsen J, et al. Association between use of cannabis in adolescence and weight change into midlife. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0168897.

Le Foll B, Trigo JM, Sharkey KA, et al. Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss? Med Hypotheses. 2013;80:564–567.

Higuera-Matas A, Botreau F, Miguéns M, et al. Chronic periadolescent cannabinoid treatment enhances adult hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in male Wistar rats but only has marginal effects on anxiety, learning and memory. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;93:482–490.

Lawston J, Borella A, Robinson JK, Whitaker-Azmitia PM. Changes in hippocampal morphology following chronic treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2. Brain Res. 2000;877(2): 407–410.