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Landau-Kleffner syndrome or acquired epileptic aphasia is an acquired infantile epileptic syndrome. It was identified by Landau and Kleffner in 1957, where six affected children were listed. It is characterized by an acute loss of speech and language and an overall regression of behavior in a child who had good psychomotor development with language normal. The rarity of this syndrome makes it demanding to diagnose. Multidisciplinary treatment will be required by pediatricians, neuropediatricians, child psychiatrists, psychologists, speech-language pathologists, otolaryngologists and radiologists. The final diagnosis is based on an altered EEG during sleep with a normal brain MRI, as well as clinical manifestations syndrome. we report the case of a 13-year-old child, with good psychomotor and cognitive development, from 1st degree inbred parents, there was no family history of childhood epileptic disorder, having presented six months ago 15 minute tonic-clonic straight hemicrises and a dysgraphia was installed gradually, against a background of apyrexia. These symptoms progressed six months later, towards a very significant regression of the oral language with difficulties of articulation and a total regression written. The sensory and motor examination was normal. The cranial nerves were intact. The walk was normal. The systemic examination was without abnormality. The studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain with contrast is normal. EEG objectified short, predominantly centro-temporal biphasic short bursts and during sleep, the presences of a central theta focus. The patient was put on sodium valproate, Levetiracetam, Clobazam, intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid and speech therapy.
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